Anthropometry(Greek anthropos= man + metron= measure), is a method of measuring the morphological characteristics of the human body and its individual segments.
It is widely used in medicine, but also in industry, construction, etc. (for example, when making appropriate clothing, footwear, equipment, seats, bearings, machinery, etc.). In ancient times, certain anthropometric measurements were performed in the time before Christ, and ancient Greek and Roman sculptors, based on anthropometric data, determined the proportions of a properly developed man.
The beginning of the study of anthropometry was recorded in the 18th century. century and is constantly evolving. Throughout its history, it has had various applications. Thus, for example, anthropometry is used in anthropology, in microevolutionary research, in research that monitors the development and growth of children, and in assessments of nutrition (food availability).
The real development of the use of anthropometry in the social sciences began in the mid-1970s among cliometricians interested in measuring living standards in the past to better understand the hitherto hidden effects of development economics on human body growth. Anthropometry has historically used physical growth as an indicator of well-being to supplement common indicators of living standards with biological living standards.
Anthropometric measurements can be multiple, singleand mixed.
The first type of measurement is performed at certain time intervals over a long period of time on the same persons. The obtained results enable, for example, monitoring the speed of development and growth of children, the impact of military life and work on the development of soldiers and the like.
One-time measurements are performed in a short period of time on various persons of different ages and genders, and new persons are included in mixed measurements.
Systematic anthropometric measurements of the population, especially adolescents, indicate the degree of physical development, skeletal development and, possibly, the existence of deformities and anomalies in posture. The analysis of the results with the assessment of ecological conditions enables the understanding of the basic factors of development, and at the same time warns of the directions of preventive action.
The goal of anthropometry is to quantitatively characterize the morphological (morphological anthropometry) and physiological (physiological anthropometry) characteristics of the human body, which are different in different populations.
Growth and development have been shown to be influenced by a number of very complex endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are biological inheritance, hormonal status and sex, while exogenous are diet, socioeconomic status, climate and human race, birth weight, chronic diseases, seasonal differences, secular growth, physical activity, exercise and sport.
The main advantages of anthropometry over other nutritional status assessments are ease of performance, repeatability, and low data collection costs.
Anthropometric measurements are performed with special anthropological instruments: scales, meters, centimeter tape, various compasses, accessories for measuring the thickness of the skin fold, camera, etc. Orientation points when taking anthropometric measures are precisely defined and, usually, these are prominent places on the bones .
Prominent points of the human body in anthropometric analysis
In a mass examination of physical development, the following are measured: height, weight, circumference (chest, abdomen, upper arm and lower leg), skin fold thickness and diameters (biachromial, bideltoid and bicrystalline). Based on the obtained anthropometric data, physical development is assessed by standard and index methods.
At the Ribnjak Polyclinic, anthropometric measurement consists of measuring three groups of parameters:
TYPES OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT
In anthropometry, we distinguish between static and dynamic measurements, which will be discussed in more detail below, as well as mesostable and mesolabile measurement methods.
When the body is at rest we speak of staticanthropometry. This anthropometry deals with static anthropometric variables related to the amplitudes of joint movement, reach, and muscle power for different parts of the body. In static anthropometry, all static dimensions of the body are measured, dimensions that represent basic information about the morphological properties of a population. There are different positions of the human body in which static anthropometric quantities are measured:
The basic task of dynamic measurement (dynamic anthropometry) is to point out the fact that when performing a certain task, individual parts of the human body do not function independently of each other. Unlike static anthropometry, dynamic anthropometry is based on biomechanics, ie. on the application of mechanics in biological systems. In the case of application in ergonomics it is human biomechanics. Biomechanics deals with the systematic measurement of body position, speed of movement, acceleration, forces and moments during the performance of various activities. The purpose is to determine in the analysis the most appropriate starting position for a complex movement.
At the Ribnjak Polyclinic, one of the most important parameters for assessing the condition of the body is the analysis of body composition with a TANITA diagnostic scale, ie a monitor that calculates the composition of your body with a unique, advanced double frequency technology. Tanita scales are based on the so-called. BIA technology (Bio Impedance Analysis – measurement of bioelectrical impedance). The principle of operation of this technology is based on stable electrodes, which send weak and safe electrical signals through the body. The electrical signal then passes freely through the fluids in the muscles, blood and water and successfully identifies the accumulation of adipose tissue, as it provides high resistance because it contains very little water.
In this way with the TANITA diagnostic scale we can measure various parameters, among others, and the distribution of adipose tissue and muscle mass within the body. Using a segmental body composition analyzer, we can determine the distribution of adipose tissue and muscle mass within all individual limbs and trunk.
Assessing a TANITA scale, while simultaneously measuring various other parameters, such as the aforementioned ranges and dynamometry, brings benefits no matter what your ultimate goal is (whether it’s to reduce subcutaneous fat, increase muscle mass, or simply a desire for healthier and better quality eating habits.). This kind of analysis will ultimately help you understand how changes in your lifestyle affect your body.
The body composition analysis itself takes about 15 minutes, which includes weighing, interpretation of findings and consultations related to further progress options within the program of our Polyclinic (consultations with a nutritionist, personal trainer or, if necessary, a doctor).
The findings of this analysis clearly show:
Segmentarna analiza za ruke, noge i trup:
• adipose tissue (%)
• muscle mass (kg)
Anthropometric measurement in the Ribnjak Polyclinic is most often done as part of various packages, tailored to your final goal. So you can do it as part of different protocols DNA analyzesthat we perform in our Polyclinic (DNA diet, which you can learn more about HERE, i DNA sport, which you can learn more about HERE), then as part of the implementation training process in our sports diagnostic center, whether it is conducted in rehabilitation purposes, whether carried out for the purpose fitness preparations, as part of the production personalized diet plan and program, and you can do it as a separate service, if you are interested in the current analysis of the composition of your body.
Also, with this analysis you can reliably measure your own progress and see the situation before / after, which can serve as a great source of motivation.
Anthropometric analysis at the Ribnjak Polyclinic can be very useful in setting realistic goals related to your health, appearance and level of physical activity in which you will participate. Contact us with confidence,
Your Polyclinic Ribnjak.